Hallucinations

1. WHAT ARE HALLUCINATIONS? Hallucinations have been defined as, “A sensory experience which occurs in the absence of corresponding external stimulation of the relevant sensory organ, has a sufficient sense of reality to resemble a veridical perception, over which the subject does not feel s/he has direct and voluntary control, and which occurs in the …

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Confabulation: Honest Lying

1. WHAT IS CONFABULATION? We are all wrong. Philosophers, scientists, writers, poets, even mathematicians make huge, sometime devastating errors. We make errors in our daily life — errors of judgement, of planning, of memory, among others. Much of the time, we are not aware of our errors, we feel that we are right and we …

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Sundowning

1. WHAT IS SUNDOWNING? Surprisingly, that’s not an easy question to answer. Sundowning is a descriptive term rather than a diagnosis. Different researchers have different definitions — which has complicated attempts to study the symptom, determine what causes it, and find ways to treat it. Broadly speaking, sundowning is a cyclical increase in agitation (which …

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